1. Conceptual analysis of food additives
Food additives are chemical synthetic or natural substances added in the food production process to improve the color, aroma, and flavor of food. At the same time, food additives can also enhance the anti-corrosion ability of food and play a very important role in food production. At present, most of the food additives used in China's food production are artificially synthesized additives, and excessive use can have certain effects on the human body. In the 1980s, China made clear regulations on the scope and dosage of certain food additives, and established a Food Additive Standardization Committee.
2. Conventional testing methods for food additives
2.1 Molecular spectroscopy technology detection methods
Molecular spectroscopy technology is very common in conventional food additive detection methods, which utilizes the absorption of specific electromagnetic radiation by molecules for a qualitative and quantitative analysis. This detection technology can detect the concentration of various food additives in flour, such as benzoyl peroxide. The detection method is to use a portable spectrometer to detect the concentration of iodine in flour, and the concentration of benzoyl peroxide can be calculated based on the concentration of iodine.
2.2 Chromatographic technology detection methods
The food additive chromatography technology detection method is also a conventional detection method, which mainly uses high-performance liquid chromatography diode array detector to detect food additives. The detection using chromatography technology mainly focuses on the content of hydroxybenzoate, and the diode array detector is used to detect the hydroxybenzoate extracted from acetonitrile. Another technique of chromatography is to use capillary micelle electrokinetic chromatography to detect food additives. The detection method is to use the hydrophobic core in the flow buffer to separate neutral solutes and point components based on the different hydrophobicity of the solute.
2.3 Detection method of color and mass spectrometry technology
Food additives can also be detected through the method of chromatography-mass spectrometry, which includes the high separation ability of liquid chromatography for complex samples and a unique selective mass spectrometry technique. It presents strong analytical ability in food additive detection and can accurately obtain analytical results, which is widely used in the determination of food additives. By using the detection method of chromatography-mass spectrometry, more than ten prohibited food additives in wine can be detected in a short period of time through gradient elution, separation, and detection of food additives.
2.4 Gas chromatography detection method
Gas chromatography is one of the more mature chromatographic methods, commonly used for the detection of food additives. The main principle is to gasify the sample to be tested, then separate it with N2 carrier gas through a fixed phase and detect it with corresponding detectors. Common detectors include FID, NPD, TCD, and ECD, which use gas chromatography hydrogen flame method to determine dehydroacetic acid, benzoic acid, and sorbic acid in food. Research has shown that the recovery rate of the above-mentioned preservatives is between 96% and 104%.
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