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Electromagnetic pollution and electromagnetic environment

2024-01-19 14:58

It should be noted that electromagnetic radiation and electromagnetic pollution are two different concepts, and not all electromagnetic radiation constitutes electromagnetic pollution.

Electromagnetic radiation can only pose a threat to the human body when it reaches a certain intensity. Due to the difficulty in detecting the hazards of electromagnetic radiation, a considerable number of the public may overreact to it, and there are often reports of residents protesting against the installation of high-voltage substations and communication base stations around residential areas.

Some special groups (such as pregnant women) have adopted excessive protection measures against electromagnetic radiation, which has affected their work and life. Therefore, it is necessary to establish scientific and reasonable electromagnetic radiation exposure limits and measurement methods, while accurately measuring them, so that the public can understand the situation of electromagnetic radiation. Reasonable protective measures should be taken without causing panic; It is beneficial for protecting public health without hindering the development of industries.

Standardization work

Internationally, different international standardization organizations are responsible for developing corresponding standards for electromagnetic radiation exposure limits and measurement methods. The International Committee on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has developed the time-varying electricity

Guidelines for Exposure Limits of Fields, Magnetic Fields, and Electromagnetic Fields. This guideline specifies the exposure limits for electromagnetic radiation, but does not involve measurement methods. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) aims to promote human exposure to electric and magnetic fields

A study on evaluation methods in electromagnetic fields was proposed in October 1999 to establish Technical Committee 106 (IEC/TC106), and the first plenary meeting was held in October 2000. The research of IEC/TC106 should focus on the evaluation methods of electric, magnetic, and electromagnetic fields related to human exposure, namely the measurement methods of electromagnetic radiation exposure values. The European Electrotechnical Commission (CENELEC) established TC106x in the 1990s, responsible for developing standards for measuring electromagnetic radiation exposure values, as well as electromagnetic field measurement methods for mobile phones, household and similar electrical appliances. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in the United States also has methods for measuring radio frequency and microwave electromagnetic radiation exposure values. In 2005, China also established a national standardization technical working group for evaluation methods related to electricity, magnetism, and electromagnetic radiation exposure to the human body, and carried out research on standardization technology for measurement methods of electromagnetic radiation exposure values. The secretariat of this working group is located at the China Institute of Metrology and has completed the development of multiple standards for electromagnetic radiation exposure.

Electromagnetic environment measurement

The intensity of electromagnetic fields has significant differences in their harm to human health. According to literature from relevant research institutions, weaker electromagnetic fields do not pose a threat to human health. Just like the temperature of water, human contact with water around 30 ℃ does not pose a threat to health, while contact with water at 100 ℃ can cause burns. Therefore, it is very important to establish an accurate and reliable measuring and testing device to measure the size of the electromagnetic field.

In addition to the basic limits, in the field of electromagnetic environment, the quantities involved in deriving limits (such as V/m of electric field strength and A/m of magnetic field strength) are also commonly used quantities. These quantities are traditional physical quantities and are also frequently used in other fields.

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