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Textile flame retardant testing and related testing equipment

2023-10-16 11:29

I. NFPA 2112 Flame Resistance Testing

NFPA 2112-2012 Flame-Resistant Clothing Tests for the Protection of Industrial Personnel Against Fire This standard establishes minimum design requirements, performance, and qualification requirements, as well as fire resistance and flame retardancy criteria for protective clothing.

Section 8.3 Flame Resistance Test: This test method applies to each flame resistant garment fabric layer.

NFPA 2112: NFPA Standard for Flame-Resistant Clothing for Flash FiresThe NFPA specifies the following aspects of flame-retardant protective clothing for industrial flash fires: product marking, user information, clothing design, fibres, seams, accessories, and labelling.

NFPA 2112 is the Standard for Industrial Flame-Resistant Protective Clothing and serves as the test basis for the establishment of future laws and regulations for industrial flame-retardant protective clothing. It comprehensively describes the thermal protection performance requirements for industrial flame retardant protective clothing, including a series of thermal protection performance tests.

(1) Vertical burning performance test.

The material is exposed to a standard flame for 12 s, and after the flame is removed, it is determined whether it will be ignited and the length of the burn damage.

(2) Thermal stability test is essentially the same as the 500 °F oven test in the NFPA 1975 standard.

(3) Thermal Radiation and Thermal Convection Mixed Action Protection Performance Test, or TPP method.

This method tests a 6 square inch piece of fabric by placing it under a source of thermal convective and radiant heat with a total energy density of 2 cal/(cm2-s) and then recording the time it takes to achieve a second degree burn, the TPP value being the time multiplied by the cal/cal/(cm2-s.) The higher the TPP value, the greater the protection provided by the fabric. Unlike the vertical burning test, the TPP test can tell us how much energy must be absorbed to simulate the human skin to achieve second-degree burns through a variety of different fabrics, that is to say, the higher the TPP value, the better the protection of the fabrics for the body exposed to high temperatures and high heat flames, the unit TPP value is the most direct reflection of the performance of thermal protection.

(4) Thermal mannequin test.

The test is to let the whole body contains 122 temperature tester 6 inches high mannequin wearing fireproof clothing, and make it exposed to 12 propane flamethrower collection into the 2 cal/cm2-s heat source, the computer according to the data collected from the 122 temperature tester, simulation of human skin may be subjected to second and third degree of burns and parts.

Second, 16 CFR Part 1610 flame retardant test

16 CFR Part 1610 standard introduction: 16 CFR Part 1610 textile and apparel flammability standard specifies the three major classifications of flammability test methods for apparel and textiles, describes the textiles should comply with the requirements of such a classification, and warns that those textiles with burning behaviour are not suitable for apparel production.

In 16 CFR part 1610, the definitions applicable to the standard, such as statutes, rules and regulations, standards, exposed portions of garments, coated fabrics, flat textile fabrics, suede textile fabrics, and types of finishes, are detailed.

The standard applies to all fabrics made of natural or synthetic fibres with some kind of finish or without a finish, as well as to garments made of these fabrics. It does not apply to hats, gloves and footwear, and to lining fabrics.

Specific test methods and burning performance requirements are set out in the standard. The combustion properties are divided into three levels, with specific indications according to the type of product (see table below). It is clearly stated that level 1 applies to clothing; level 2 is only for suede textiles, also applies to clothing; level 3 can not be used for the production of clothing, and prohibited from importing into the United States.

Third, NFPA 701 flame retardant test

NFPA 701 is the U.S. Fire Protection Association published on the flame retardant fabrics and film materials combustion test standards. The standard has a wide range of applications in the United States, applicable to public places such as curtains, draperies and other hanging fabrics do not require water resistance. The test is conducted by vertical combustion, and the test criteria are categorised according to whether the weight of the product exceeds 700g/m2 and whether or not the product has a surface coating. If the weight does not exceed 700g/m2 and there is no surface coating, choose to use Method 1 for the test, while the rest are applicable to Method 2 for the test.

Scope of testing

Test method 1 applies to fabrics and materials used for door curtains, draperies, or other window coverings.

For single-layer fabrics and multi-layer curtains, draperies, and nets that are tightly bonded by sewing, gluing, or other treatments, vinyl-coated fabrics are subject to Test Method 2.

Test Method 2 applies to fabrics with a flat surface and a surface area greater than 700 g/m2, including multi-layer fabrics, films, plastic curtains, etc., and to vinyl-coated fabrics and awnings, tents, tarpaulins, and similar architectural fabric structures and banners.

Test Requirements

Test Method 1:

1) The specimen shall not burn for more than 2 seconds after the ignition source is removed.

2) The average loss of burning mass of the specimen shall not exceed 40%.

Test Method 2:

1) After removal of the ignition source, no single specimen shall burn for more than 2 seconds.

2)The residual burning time of any individual specimen shall not exceed 2 seconds.

3) The permissible standard for the burnt length of collapsed specimens depends on the type of specimen.

Applicable products

Mostly fabrics and used for curtains and drapes, draperies, shelter materials, multi-layer fabrics, films, plastic curtains, coated fabrics, awnings, tents, tarpaulins and other thicknesses of thin and light products.

ASTM D1230 flame retardant test

ASTM D1230-94(2001) Standard Test Method for Flammability of Apparel Textiles Introduction: ASTM D1230-94(2001) Standard Test Method for Flammability of Apparel Textiles covers the assessment of the flammability of textile fabrics used for apparel rather than for children's sleepwear or protective clothing.

Note: This test method is different from the flammability test for apparel textiles in 16CFR 1610. Consumer Product Safety Commission regulations require textiles sold to meet the requirements of 16 CFR 1610.

Test Principle:

This standard establishes a test method for the flammability of textiles used in the manufacture of apparel, describes the three categories of flammability, establishes requirements for the classification of textiles, and warns against the use of single- or multilayered fabrics commercially described as unsuitable for apparel and having a potential for combustion.

Specimens cut from textiles are prepared for brushing if they have a pile fibre surface, and for dry cleaning and laundering if they are fire-finished. The dried specimens are mounted on a special apparatus at an angle of 45°, a standardised flame is applied to the surface of the fabric near the bottom of the apparatus and ignited for 1 second, the time taken for the flame to burn a length of 127mm (5 inches) of fabric is recorded, and in the case of pile fabrics, it is noted whether the fabric base is on fire, charred or melted.

Pretreatment conditions:

1) Dry cleaned and washed and dried once

2) Dry in an oven at 105°C ± 3°C (221° ± 5°F) for 30 ± 2 minutes, remove from the oven and place in a desiccator with a bed of anhydrous silica gel desiccant until cool, but not less than 15 minutes.

V. BS EN 14878 Flame retardant test

BS EN 14878:2007 Specification for the flammability performance of textiles children's pyjamas This standard specifies the flammability performance requirements for children's pyjamas and pyjama fabrics used for clothing in accordance with EN 1103, but without the requirements of the washing procedure test.

The standard covers all children's sleepwear, including pyjama trousers, evening dresses, bathrobes and similar garments. The test determines the burning behaviour of the sample in terms of luminous flame and flame propagation rate, and also includes requirements for the design principles of pyjamas. The standard should be used to illustrate the process of compliance with the GPSD for risk assessment of children's sleepwear.

Measurements of flame propagation and surface flash time should be carried out according to EN 1103.

For the purposes of this standard, the classification of the various types of pyjama fabrics is shown in the table below. It is assumed that if a higher level is met, all criteria for the lower level will be met.

VI. CAN ULC-S109-03 Flame retardant test

Scope of Application

This requirement applies to the implementation of the fire test applied to tents, awnings, draperies or decorative natural flame-retardant fabrics, synthetic and synthetic fibres of man-made or natural origin, or plastic films, fabrics and films of flame retardant properties may be used in their own materials have or may be chemically treated to retard combustion and the spread of flame.

This requirement for fabrics and films does not apply to either apparel or construction or support materials.

Test Requirements

1. Small Flame Test

1.1 Drops burn for not more than 2 seconds

1.2 Flame damage distance (mean value ≤165mm, maximum ≤190mm)

1.3 Other requirements such as washing weathering

2. Large flame test

2.1 Burning time of dripping material not more than 2 seconds

2.2 Flame spread distance not more than 635mm

2.3 Undercurrent destruction distance not exceeding 250mm

2.4 Other washing weathering and other requirements

Relevant flame retardant testing equipment

Horizontal and vertical combustion tester

Scorch wire tester

Needle flame tester

Leakage trace tester

Single wire and cable vertical combustion tester

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