With the continuous improvement of consumers' awareness of environmental protection and health and safety, the prospects of the ecological textile testing market are getting better and better. Ecological textiles emphasize that it is harmless to people's health, has a low degree of environmental pollution, and meets the regeneration needs of resource protection. From the perspective of human health and living environment, ecological textiles should meet the following requirements: no harm to the health of workers during the production process; no harm to human health during the wearing process; no harm to the environment during disposal harm.
1. Ecological textile testing items
1. Formaldehyde: The application of formaldehyde in textiles is mainly used as a reactant to improve the durability of printing and dyeing auxiliaries in textiles. However, formaldehyde can cause strong irritation to skin and eyes, and cause respiratory tract dermatitis, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, bronchitis, etc. In severe cases, it can even cause cancer.
2. PH value: In the process of textile processing, the chemical agent may not be cleaned, and tap water or deep well water with poor water quality contains sodium bicarbonate. After drying, the textile will be alkaline. Since the surface layer of human skin has acidic substances, in order to avoid virus invasion, the pH value in the textile should be in a neutral to weakly acidic state, which is more beneficial to human skin. The PH value standard of general textiles is about 4.8-7.5, and the pH value standard of wool fabrics is about 4.0-7.5.
3. Heavy metals: Heavy metals in textiles are mainly because natural fibers can absorb heavy metals in the soil and air, or use various additives, metal chromium dyes, etc. In some anti-mildew, anti-bacterial, and anti-odor textiles, the application of Cu, Gr, Hg and other treatment methods will also cause serious heavy metal pollution, and may leave As, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Hg in the textiles , Ni, Pd, Zn and other substances. Once the human body absorbs a large amount of heavy metals, it will be stored in the liver, kidney, brain or bones, which greatly harms human health.
4. Chlorine-containing organic matter: The carrier dyeing process is often used in pure spinning and blending of polyester fiber. Through this kind of carrier dyeing, it is beneficial to the dispersion of dyes, and dyeing polyester fiber under normal pressure boiling dyeing environment. Some high-efficiency and cheap chlorinated aromatic compounds such as dichlorotoluene and trichlorobenzene are harmful to the environment, and may cause teratogenic or cancer in the human body. Therefore, chlorobenzene has been included in the testing items of the latest ecological textile standards.
5. Polyoxybiphenyls: In textiles, excessive residues of polychlorinated biphenyl derivatives often occur, and they are included in pesticides in some tests. In fact, PCB is not an insecticide, but a flame retardant and electrostatic agent, which exists in textiles. Polychlorinated biphenyls are harmful to the human body, such as causing gastrointestinal discomfort, skin coloring, etc., and even causing cancer.
6. Carcinogens: Some banned fuels are likely to be transferred from dyed textiles to human skin, and under certain circumstances, they promote reduction reactions, release various aromatic amines, and induce cancer. These carcinogens enter the body through the skin of the human body, and then undergo metabolism, causing changes in the DNA in the cells, causing human diseases, allergies or cancer. Aromatic amines in general textiles should be controlled within the range of 30mg/kg.
7. Insecticides: Among natural plant fibers, cotton is taken as an example. Many pesticides are involved in the planting process, such as herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and defoliants. During the growth of cotton, due to the spraying of a large amount of pesticides, part of it may be absorbed by the fiber. Although the absorbed pesticides are eliminated in the textile processing process, there are still some residues and the removal is not complete. Due to the residues of pesticides, they may have different toxicity to the human body and are directly proportional to the amount of residues on the textiles. Some of them may be absorbed by the human body and have a greater impact. If the product does not contain natural fibers, there is no need to test for this item.
8. Dyeing fastness: In ecological textiles, 4 kinds of dyeing fastness indicators are generally used as test items. These color fastnesses are related to textiles or human body wear, and are respectively abrasion resistance, sweat stains, water stains, saliva and sweat stains. Especially in infant clothes, because infants and young children may inhale fuel into their bodies through saliva or sweat, the color fastness of saliva and sweat is the highest and most important.
9. Special smell: If the smell in the textile is particularly strong, there must be residues of chemical agents or other harmful ingredients, posing a threat to human health. However, the requirements for various clothing are different, and the requirements for the trace retention of special odors are also different.
Second, improve the strategy of ecological textile testing
1. Establish and improve the testing standard system
If you want to improve the standards and quality of my country's textile products, it is necessary to formulate a relevant quality standard system based on my country's actual conditions. Take Japan as an example. They do not recognize European and American standards, and all ecological textiles entering the Japanese market strictly abide by Japanese local standards. Judging from the current development of ecological textiles, there is no uniform and standardized international standard or internationally recognized standard procedures. All ecological textile testing tends to be regional. Therefore, my country should require itself at the international advanced level, strengthen research on relevant standards, and pass the formulation of standards, and finally form an ecological textile testing standard with independent intellectual property rights, and become an international promotion model. Therefore, if we want to achieve this goal, my country still needs to devote a certain amount of human, financial, and material resources to continuously improve its own standards, starting from the following two aspects:
(1) General authoritative standards: The formulation of such standards requires considerable technical and financial support, attention should be paid to avoid infringement, and the international ecological textile standards that have been recognized should also be accepted and followed with an humility.
(2) Regional standards: such as cashmere products, linen fabrics, etc., have absolute resource advantages in my country, while basic related standards abroad are basically blank, and my country can formulate standards based on actual conditions. The standards formulated in advance have great advantages, which can realize Chinese testing standards and brand effects, and lay a good foundation for monopoly profits.
2. Increase the development of testing equipment: In order to cooperate with the smooth implementation and implementation of various testing standard systems, there must be corresponding testing equipment support. On the one hand, research and develop instruments with independent intellectual property rights. Manufacturers of textile equipment should keep up with the pace of development of ecological textile testing, compare relevant international standards, continue to develop new types of ecological textile equipment, and form core technologies; on the other hand, strengthen technology introduction and cooperation. This is a new way of cooperation, we neither need to introduce it completely, nor do we need to start from scratch. We should boldly innovate and actively apply the results we have already achieved, and become an authoritative instrument. In fact, independent research and development instruments have good development prospects and international status. In the international textile testing technology, there are not many high-quality, sophisticated and cutting-edge equipment, which provides a broad space for the development of my country's technological level. At the same time, my country no longer needs to fully introduce testing equipment to avoid the monopoly of foreign testing agencies, which will bring disadvantages to my country's development.
3. Actively participate in international competition and cooperation: At present, many overseas inspection agencies are eager to enter China's ecological textile inspection market. my country also encourages some product quality inspection institutions with good conditions and credit to enter the country, strengthen cooperation with internationally renowned inspection institutions, and continuously improve the quality concept and advanced technology of my country's ecological textile inspection through cooperation, and quickly improve the quality of talents and participate Competition in the international market.
4. Cultivate high-quality testing personnel: On the one hand, actively introduce testing personnel from the outside to improve the overall quality of the textile testing team; on the other hand, improve the incentive policy internally, encourage in-service personnel to participate in continuing education, continuously improve the technical level, and become Industry leader. Especially with the advent of global economic integration, the country needs a group of compound talents who understand computers, understand foreign languages, and understand testing regulations, international standards, and World Trade Organization rules.
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