Study On Fabric Properties Affecting Abrasion
Fabric construction, thickness, weight, the number of yarn (thread density) and interlacing per unit area are the fabric properties affecting abrasion. Weave type has a significant effect on abrasion resistance of the fabrics. Woven fabric properties will differ by changing the weave pattern which is evaluated not only as an appearance property, but also as a very important structure parameter. If one set of yarns is predominantly on the surface then this set will wear most; this effect can be used to protect the load bearing yarns preferentially.
Long yarn floats and a low number of interlacings cause the continuous contact area of one yarn strand to expand and this facilitates the yarn to lose its form more easily by providing easier movement as a result of the rubbing motion. So long floats in a weave such as sateen structures are more exposed and abrade faster,usually cause breaking of the yarns and increasing the mass loss. In this way, holding the fibres in the yarn structure becomes harder and the removal of fibre becomes easier . But the fabrics that have lower floats such as flat plain weave fabrics have better abrasion resistance than other weaves because the yarns are more tightly locked in structure and the wear is spread more evenly over all of the yarns in the fabric .
Like as woven structure, knitting structure has also an important effect on abrasion characteristics of knitted fabrics. Average abrasion resistance values of interlock knitted fabrics are higher than rib and single jersey fabrics. The reason of that is more stabile, thicker and voluminous structure of the interlock fabrics . Course length for the knitted fabrics is so important that the weight loss percent after abrasion increases with increasing course length. Open, slack knitted fabric structure is abraded more than denser fabrics .
The fabric mass per square meter and fabric thickness that are the main structural properties of fabrics have an effect on abrasion resistance. Higher values of these factors ensure higher abrasion resistance.
The other parameter that affects the abrasion is thread density of the fabric. The more threads per unit area in a fabric are the less force to each individual thread is, therefore the fabrics with a tight structure have higher abrasion resistance than those with a loose structure. However as the threads become jammed together they are the unable to deflect under load and thus absorb the distortion.
The literature contains papers dealing with the abrasion resistance of the specific type of the fabrics. One of them characterizes certain properties of flocked fabrics produced from different fibre type by measuring the abrasion resistance. Abrasion resistance of the flocked fabrics is related to the flock fibre length and density of flock fibre ends. The flocked fabrics with low flock fibre density and high flock fibre length show more resistance to abrasion in comparison with the flocked fabrics which have high flock fibre density and short flock fibre length. The wet rubbing resistance of the flocked fabrics is less than the dry rubbing resistance .