Abrasive wear in textiles
Abrasive wear,occurs when a hard rough surface slides across a softer surface. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) defines it as the loss of material due to hard particles or hard protuberances that are forced against and move along a solid surface. Abrasive wear is commonly classified according to the type of contact and the contact environment. The type of contact determines the mode of abrasive wear.
The two modes of abrasive wear are known as two-body and three-body abrasive wear. Two-body wear occurs when the grits or hard particles remove material from the opposite surface. The common analogy is that of material being removed or displaced by a cutting or plowing operation. Three-body wear occurs when the particles are not constrained, and are free to roll and slide down a surface.
Abrasive wear in textiles is caused by different conditions mainly given below:
- Friction between textile materials, such as rubbing of a jacket or coat lining on a shirt, pants pockets against pants fabric etc.
- Friction between the textile materials to the external object, such as rubbing of trousers to the seat, friction of the yarn to the needle etc.
- Friction between the fibres and dust, or grit, in a fabric that results in cutting of the fibres. This is an extremely slow process, it may be observed on flags hanging out or swimwear because of the unremoved sand.
- Friction between the fabric components. Flexing, stretching, and bending of the fibres during the usage causes fibre slippage, friction to each other and breakage .
Abrasive wear has three different forms: microcuting, wedge forming and ploughing . During operation of a system, transition from one mode to another may happen and modes can act simultaneously. In the ploughing mode, a shallow groove is formed and repeated loading is necessary to form a wear particle.In the wedge forming, the wedge type of wear debris is formed. In the microcutting mode, long, curled ribbon-like particles are generated. The shape of the abrasive particle, the hardness, the load and the shear strength at the contact interface determine the state of the abrasive wear. The abrasive wear coefficients of metals are in the range of depending on the conditions, which is larger compared to adhesive wear. Thus, abrasive mode is mainly a severe type of wear.